Tag Archives: Ishpeming

Morgan Heights Tuberculosis Sanatorium

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Listed as the most haunted place in Marquette by Travel Marquette, the Morgan Heights Tuberculosis Sanatorium off of County Road 492 has certainly seen its fair share of deaths. The sanatorium first opened its doors in 1911 to tuberculosis patients that needed a clean and quiet place to—hopefully—recover.

Recently, the NMU Archives began processing the Morgan Heights patient records. We have found death records, personal letters, medical charts, and even records of births. We have also seen an unfortunate amount of death in these files. Many checked into Morgan Heights, but not many checked out again, at least in the early years.

In the mid-twentieth century, the sanatorium was shut down for not having the equipment or expertise to be up to code for that time. Unfortunately, all of the original buildings but the nurses’ quarters were torn down, and those have been turned into residential housing. The people that live on the old grounds say that they often see ghosts wandering around.

Patient files are available for patron use if the person has been dead for more than fifty years. For more information on HIPAA and other privacy laws, see our former post on the topic. Beyond patient files, there is also a series of Morgan Heights photographs available.

Please stop in and take a look if you’re interested! The Archives is open Monday/Wednesday/Friday 10 AM-5 PM and Tuesday/Thursday 10 AM-7 PM.

Source: http://www.travelmarquettemichigan.com/the-most-haunted-places-in-marquette/

Written by Grace Menter



City of Ishpeming Records: Ishpeming and World War II

When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941, the country went to war. Along with countless other communities, the city of Ishpeming suddenly had to deal with restrictions, rationing, and more. The committee reports from the years 1942-1944 give an interesting look at just some of the problems and challenges the Common Council had to face.

One of the very first items was the purchase of a roadway snow removal unit. In a letter to the Common Council on December 9, 1941, the Board of Public Works held a special meeting and placed an order for a Model LRT Snogo. The Board had met on December 2nd, but deferred action due to questions on the suitability. On the 9th, the questions were quickly cleared up. “To comply with National Defense priority restrictions, the immediate placing of this order was imperative, if we were to obtain delivery before March, 1942.” This was not the usual order of business, as approval was needed prior to placing the order, but as the board stated: “Trusting that your Board’s action in this matter, under the circumstances, will meet with the concurrence and approval of your Honorable Body.”

At the regular meeting of the Common Council on October 8, 1941 the council wanted the citizens to vote on whether or not they wanted a change in the form of government. A resolution was to be adopted at the February meeting and voted upon at the annual April election. However, the resolution that did come out of the Common Council stated “those actively interested in the promotion of the idea of a new charter or a new form of government are now actively engaged in war work and other defense activities and such work will undoubtedly increase in the future….giving said citizens little time to devote to this project.” The question of a new style of city government would be postponed “until some future election.”

In March of 1942, the Common Council recommended the purchase of $6,000 in Series G Defense Bonds. Their reasoning was that “said investment will yield the City 2 ½% per annum instead of the 1% which it now receives, and it being to the interests of the City of Ishpeming to do so…”The monies came from the Cemetery Trust fund.

In a June 1942 report to the Common Council the Board of Public Works addressed a citizen’s petition for grading and surfacing on several streets in the 6th ward. Part of the board’s response stated: “Since governmental restrictions no longer permit the use of railroad cars for delivery of paving asphalt or tarvis, it would be impossible at this time to comply with the request for tar surfacing.” Grading of the streets in question would have to suffice.

Also in June of 1942 comes a report from the Board of Public Works regarding street signs. The report stated: “Compliance of this idea would involve the purchase of signs and standards or posts upon which to attach them, metal in both cases being most practical and slightly. Because of current governmental restrictions upon use of steel and other metals, it is improbable that such metal material could now be purchased.” A further report dated July 7th stated “Enquiries have been made by your Board of Public Works of many manufacturers and dealers in such signs, and replies from six leaders in these specialties state that they are now unable to supply such, and are aware of no foreseeable future date on which they could promise delivery.” The issue of street signs would be dropped until governmental regulations were withdrawn.

Both of the past two reasons were used to answer John Koski’s request for a culvert to fix his driveway. “Due to governmental restrictions on both steel material and railroad car transport facilities, culverts cannot now be purchased for road uses. “

A letter from the Social Security Board of the United States Employment Service highlighted a problem with recruiting war production employees. Some prospective employees were reluctant to leave their current positions as they were afraid of losing their seniority or service rights. Since the country desperately needed workers for war production and since many of those highly skilled tradesmen were employed by cities and other governmental agencies, the SS board asked the Common Council to adopt a policy of protecting seniority rights for any workers who wished to work at full time defense or war work. The Board of Public Works, Cemetery Board, and Library Board had no objection to the adoption of such a policy.

Even something as simple as the installation of a street light was subject to additional paperwork! A citizen petition asking for a street light on Salisbury Street got the following response from the Michigan Gas and Electric Company. “We have investigated the possibility of installing a street light on Salisbury Street, and are quite sure that it can be done without any pole installation or line extension, as the circuits are already on the pole where the lamp will be installed. However, formal application will have to be made to the War Production Board, and we are quite sure permission will be granted for its installation.”

Changes were made at city hall. There was a special meeting of the Common Council in July of 1942 to act on bids for the remodeling of two rooms in the basement of city hall for use as headquarters for the Civilian Defense Council.

There were some positive things to come out of all the restrictions. In August, the Common Council had to deal with a petition from city workers asking for an increase in wages. The Board of Public Works had this to report to the Common Council. “In regard to that part of the petition covering wage and salary increases, it should be remembered that this request was not made in time for, nor was any financial means provided for, meeting such an additional expenditures in the City Budget for year 1942. However, due to war restrictions on material preventing further street improvements and other work provided for, your Board, after careful consideration, concluded that it could be arranged to grant an increase of approximately 10% in wages and salaries.”

The war time restrictions did have an impact on safety, especially when it came to trains. A letter to the Common Council dated February 1, 1943 stated “I wish to make a plea for a Safety Signal at the Third Street Railroad crossing in behalf of any person or persons who must pass this crossing at night. I had a very close call there recently as the Streamliner approached the city. Who knows who may be next – perhaps one of you – and it may not be merely a close call, it may be fatal.” This was a letter that the Common Council took seriously as shown in the March 3, 1943 report from the City Attorney.

“The railroad people (representatives of Duluth. South Shore & Atlantic and Chicago & Northwestern) pointed out that due to present regulations, it was impossible for them to furnish any additional crossing protection by furnishing additional watchmen since they were now short of manpower as it was, and are having difficulty in even maintaining their present watchmen service. That it was further impossible to furnish flashing signals at these crossings due to shortage of material and the refusal of the Government to release such equipment for such purpose.” In short “The Committee regrets that there apparently is nothing that can be done to relieve this situation at the present time.”

After further investigation into the matter, which included researching the cost of flasher signals at several of the intersections in the city, a report from the Committee on Street Lighting to the Common Council stated, “We would recommend that no action be taken on the installation of these signals at this time, as the committee feels that the railway companies are the ones who should furnish the protection to all traffic over their crossings.”

Remodeling of City Hall in 1943 required “War Production Board authority to proceed with the remodeling of the City Hall.”

In October of 1943, the Common Council received a resolution from the Wakefield City Commission asking the government to increase the meat ration allotment for miners and lumbermen. The resolution stated, “Whereas, because of their arduous tasks a more nutritious diet is necessary than that which can be obtained at present due to rationing restrictions, and Whereas it is deemed necessary that a larger allotment of meat be made available to each person so engaged in order that a diet consistent with the amount of energy expended daily be adequately provided.” The resolution was forwarded to each community in the Upper Peninsula, although there is no indication in the reports if the allotment was ever increased.

By 1944, there was little mention of World War II in the Committee reports. Whether this was due to an easing of restrictions or to some other factor is not mentioned. One cause for this may be changes in the city government. The postponement of the city charter issue mentioned earlier only lasted several months as the question surfaced again in the summer of 1942. A special election in September of 1942 showed that residents did want the charter rewritten and did not want the current aldermanic form of government. Once the charter was rewritten, the city council size went from 20 alderman (one for each ward) and a mayor to 9 council members, elected at large, and one mayor. In addition, the city, for the first time in its history, hired a city manager. There were not as many committees and not as many reports were generated. The end of World War II is not even mentioned in the Committee Reports.

Come see these reports for yourself at the archives! We are open Monday/Wednesday/Friday 10 AM-5 PM and Tuesday/Thursday 10 AM-7 PM.

Written by Karen Kasper

City of Ishpeming Records: Citizen Petitions

Citizen petitions were a favorite tool of residents of the city of Ishpeming to bring the Common Council’s attention to issues and concerns. There are many such petitions within the City of Ishpeming records at the archives.

Most of the petitions started with “We, the undersigned citizens (or residents) and taxpayers of the city of Ishpeming.” Taxpayers was the key word as the petitioners sought to remind the Common Council just who paid the bills. Over 95% of the petitions were for improvements to the city’s infrastructure. New sidewalks, streetlights, paving streets, and, beginning in the late 1920s, plowing during the winter were all much requested items.

There are a few petitions that stand out. In November of 1941, about 250 high school students signed a petition asking for the opening of the Community building. The old YMCA had been purchased several years before by the Ishpeming Industrial Association but at that time was not in use. The common council studied the matter and in a report dated 4 March 1942 concluded that reopening the building wasn’t feasible at that time. A bond issue would have to be voted on to raise the funds necessary for repairing and maintaining the building and, due to wartime conditions, “this would be very difficult to do at this time.”

Another unusual petition is dated 15 December 1942. It asks for the reinstatement of John Ivey to his position on the city police force. The signatures include the Ishpeming Cooperative Society (a rubber stamp print with their name and then the signature of who was stamping it) as well as similar ‘signatures’ from the Finnish Mutual Fire Insurance Company, H. W. Elson’s Bottling Works and Ishpeming Feed and Fuel Company, and many actual signatures from individuals. The outcome of this petition is not known, at least in the committee reports, and what Mr. Ivey did to cause him to lose his position is also unknown.

In March of 1950, the residents of Barn Street wished to change their street name. Barn Street was named for a large barn built on the south end of the street. The barn was destroyed by fire many years prior to the petition and now the name of the street was “a matter of some dissatisfaction and possible embarrassment to the petitioners.”  Since this street was merely a continuation of Davis Street, the residents felt “should it not be a part of said street – namely N. Davis?” In this matter, the request was granted and Barn Street became N. Davis Street, although the request had to be routed through Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company, as the street was still, at that time, owned by the company.

In 1952, a proposed ban on parking on Bank Street resulted in TWO petitions. The first petition carried only a few signatures, those of businesses on Bank Street affected by such a ban. The second petition, signed by the general public, featured 22 pages of signatures protesting the ban and recommended a 1 hour limit on parking. Interestingly enough, this petition contains non-resident signatures, including some from the outlying townships and even one from Champion. The number of signatures was tallied on each page and most pages had at least 10-20 signatures.

Every request was routed to the proper committee and investigated, which is why the outcomes of many of the petitions are known, as the finished report would end up in the committee reports ledgers. Many of the reports had the phrase “We have had the same under consideration.” This phrase was especially common during the time from 1910 to 1915, when many citizens were looking for street lights.

A signed petition was no guarantee that the request would be granted. Sometimes the refusal was a matter of simple economics, especially in the early 1930s. During the Great Depression, the city had a limited budget and cautious aldermen. When the budgeted monies were gone, requests were often put on a waiting list or refused outright. In the early 1940s, the city often couldn’t grant citizen requests because the materials weren’t available due to wartime restrictions.

Another major reason why some citizen requests weren’t granted had to do with ownership of land. In Ishpeming, the mining companies, including Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company, Inland Steel and the Oliver Mining Company owned land on which houses were built. The houses themselves were owned by individuals, but the land was leased. Since the land was owned privately and presumably taxed differently, no city monies could be spent on infrastructure in those locations and any improvements had to come from the mining companies.

There are many citizen petitions on file. They offer a glimpse of the workings of Ishpeming and of the city government. Stop in and view them for yourself. Our open hours are now 10 AM-4 PM Monday though Friday!

Written by Karen Kasper

City of Ishpeming Records: The City Charter

City charters can be a challenging read. The language is formal, full of legalese, and, in the case of the charter of 1888 for the City of Ishpeming, rather archaic. But, struggling through the documents is rewarding as it gives a window into the city at that time.

The charter defined the city government. In 1888, the city housed about 10,000 residents and had four wards. The government consisted of a Common Council with 2 aldermen for each ward (It would eventually swell to 10 wards and a total of 20 aldermen) plus a mayor and numerous clerks and assistants.

In comparison, the city of Ishpeming today has about 6,000 residents (at the last census) and lies sprawled over a much larger area. The wards are no longer in place and the city council has just five members, one of whom serves as the mayor.

Once the size and shape of the common council was set fourth, the charter then began enumerating the duties of the common council. One of them was “To prevent and punish violations of the Sabbath day and the disturbance of any religious meeting, congregation or society, or public meeting assembled for any lawful purpose, and to require all places of business to be closed on the Sabbath day.”

There were 41 duties specifically laid out by the charter including “To apprehend and punish vagrants, drunkards, disorderly persons and common prostitutes” and “ To regulate or prohibit or suppress billiard tables, nine or ten-pin alleys or tables and ball alleys and to punish the keepers thereof.” Gaming was prohibited as was “horse-racing, and immoderate riding or driving in any street.”  “Ale, beer and porter houses, and all places of resort for tippling and intemperance” were highly regulated as were auctioneers, “hawkers, peddlers and pawnbrokers.” Of course, the aldermen of the common council did not do everything by themselves, as they had the power “to appoint so many police constables, night watchmen, inspectors of fire wards, sealers of weights and measures and such other officers as may be necessary to carry into effect the powers herein granted.”

The Common Council licensed and regulated “taverns and houses of public entertainment; all saloons, restaurants and eating houses,” “all vehicles of every kind used for transportation of persons or property for hire in the city,” and “ toll bridges within the city and to prescribe the rates and charges for passage over the same.” They inspected “meats, poultry, fish, butter, cheese, lard, vegetables, flour and other provisions” and also “brick, lumber, firewood, coal, hay and any article of merchandise.” The latter items were also weighed and measured.

Chapter 11 of the city charter spelled out the size of the fire department as well as the duties of the fire department and how it was organized. The charter even stated “Upon the breaking out of any fire in said city, the marshal shall immediately repair to the place of such fire and aid and assist, as well in extinguishing the fire as in preventing any goods or property from being stolen or injured.” But “the marshal shall be in all respects obedient to the mayor, aldermen, fire wardens or either of them, or such of them as may be present at such fire.”

Bystanders at the fire risked being called upon to assist: “Whenever any person shall refuse to obey any lawful order from any engineer, fire warden, mayor or alderman at any fire, it shall be lawful for the officer giving such order to arrest or to direct orally, any constable, watchman or any citizen to arrest such person.” However, there were a few benefits to being part of the fire company as they were exempt from “serving on juries and paying a poll tax in said city.”

Another chapter dealt with public health and the appointment of a board of health. That board was tasked with “to take such measures as they shall deem effectual to prevent the entrance of any pestilential or infectious disease into the city;” “to establish, maintain and regulate any pest house or hospital at some place within the city;” and “to cause any resident of the city infected with any such disease to be removed to such pest house or hospital.”

The city started putting in water lines as early as 1882, so part of the city charter dealt with the appointment of “water commissioners,” with the “power to make and adopt all such by-laws, rules and regulations as may be necessary or expedient for the conduct of its business and that of the executive member of the board, not inconsistent with this act.” The board as a whole had the “power to construct, repair and maintain reservoirs, buildings, machinery, jets and fountains, at such locations in said city or without said city as the common council shall deem expedient and direct, and to lay and repair water mains and pipes in and through all the streets, alleys and public places in said city for the purpose of furnishing a full supply of water for public and private uses in said city.”

Other sections of the charter provided for public improvements and the whys and wherefores of paying for such improvements; taxation, taxes and the collection thereof; compensation of officers and cemeteries.

There is a copy of the 1888 Charter of the city of Ishpeming within the City of Ishpeming records collection. Stop in and read it for yourself!

Please note: our summer hours are now 10 AM-4 PM!

Written by Karen Kasper 


Our Recent Trip to Ishpeming!

NMU is a local government records depository for the state of Michigan, which means the Archives maintains archival records of local governments in the central UP. Rather than these permanent historical records going to Lansing, they remain here in the UP accessible to the public. Ishpeming’s former City Clerk contacted Marcus about old city records that they had on file. She wanted them transferred to the Archives to be properly cared for. Marcus, the former City Clerk, and the former City Manager of Ishpeming had a meeting about these records. Shortly after the meeting, the city clerk retired and the city manager left for a new job.

A few months ago, Marcus contacted Mark Slown, the current City Manager, about the old city records. On Tuesday, July 14th, University Archivist Marcus Robyns, Records Analyst, Sara Kiszka, and student employees Annika Peterson and Prince Parker, took a trip to Ishpeming City Hall. We were on a mission to look through the ledgers and books that contained information about the city. We met up with Karen Kasper, our Genealogy Specialist and Research Consultant, at ten o’clock at City Hall.

Shortly after a small greeting with the wonderful staff in the building, the archives team went straight to work. Mark Slown took us to the basement of the building where most of their records are kept so we could begin our search. Marcus pointed out that we were looking for information that would be of use to historians and genealogist. The records were in a back room. The door was closed, which had caused a lot of dust to accumulate. We only looked through the ledgers and books that City Hall had no space for.

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Annika removing records from the room
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Marcus determining which records we should keep

After two hours of hard work finding the information that was of use to the archives, the team went to lunch with the very nice Mark Slown, who offered to buy us lunch. Ending our break, we got back to work transferring all the materials from the building to the van. After moving many books and ledgers, it was time to head back to the Records Center in Marquette where the records were put in storage for inventory. Annika just finished an inventory of the material and will be completing the accession record shortly. The collection will be processed at some point in the hopefully near future.

Some of the materials in the collection are voter registration records dating from the 1880’s–1930’s, a registration book enrolling women to vote right after the 19th amendment, cemetery records from 1900-1940, birth records for the year 1900, correspondence about local government issues, Many volumes are from the Public Works department, which was in charge of the water, the sewers, and the highways. They contain general correspondence, payroll, and specifications for the sewers.

It was a very dirty job, but someone had to do it, so we took on the challenge and won.

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The end result: boxes and ledgers neatly stacked on temporary shelving at the Records Center until the collection can be processed

Written by Prince Parker

Collection Spotlight: The Tsu Ming Han Papers

1948. A young Chinese man braves the ridged and stormy December waves on a long 22-day voyage to America. He embarks with no knowledge of the language or culture, armed only with the belief that America is a beautiful country. As he watches the “Gio-Gee-Shan” (Old Gold Mountain) pass him by he looks forward to the future, not knowing what it will bring.

Recently, the Archives arrangement and description specialist, Glenda Ward finished processing the Tsu-Ming Han papers. Tsu-Ming was a geologist who worked for the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company starting in 1953. The collection includes an autobiography, awards and certificates, pictures, a photo album of his work in the United States from 1948 to 1951 and other materials about his research and life in Ishpeming.

Tsu-Ming Han was born on September 11, 1924, in a small village called Sha-Chu Zin in the Henan Province. His birth name was Shu-Pen and he lived with his large extended family on farms. Growing up in China during this time was difficult due to the increasing problem of bandits stealing food and ransoming family members. When he was a young boy, Shu-Pen was kidnapped by bandits for 55 days until his family was able to pay his ransom. Fearing for their lives, the family fled their ancestral home in an effort to escape the bandits.

Most of Shu-Pen’s family was uneducated; however, his father believed in the importance of education and eventually their family settled down and his father began a middle school. Bandits were still a problem but his father managed to keep them at bay by selling them drugs like heroin and opium.

When Shu-Pen was old enough he left his family to attend junior middle school where he changed his name to Tsu-Ming, a common practice at the time. He applied to a college hoping to study chemistry but was not accepted into the program. However, he was accepted to the Geology program. He didn’t even know what the word “geology” meant. In his autobiography, Tsu-Ming describes the difficulties of college life due to political turmoil and war.

Amid this strife, Tsu-Ming continued his education and eventually applied to schools in the United States. After a year of effort, he finally received his visa card and enrolled in the University of Cincinnati in 1948. There he met his life-long friend and colleague, Dr. John L. Rich, who helped him complete his master’s degree in science. On Dr. Rich’s advice, he spent the next three years at the University of Minnesota and finished his doctoral degree in 1952.

The following year, the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company hired Tsu-Ming as a Microscopist and he stayed there for the next 40 years. For the majority of his career, he researched pellet quality improvement with respect to compressive strength reducibility and low temperature breakdowns. Despite important contributions, Tsu-Ming concluded at his retirement party “My job during the last 40 years was a secure one. It was also a failed one. Secure because nobody knew what my job was, failure because I failed to communicate my findings to most of the people who were involved.” Ironically, Tsu-Ming’s accomplishments won great praise and admiration from his colleagues. He went on to write, publish, and present many of his findings at conferences around the country. Tsu-Ming’s most notable discovery was the world’s oldest megascopic fossil, which he estimated to be around 2 billion years old. By 1992, he published his findings worldwide in newspapers, magazine, and a CD-ROM for distribution to schools.

After retirement, Tsu-Ming continued attending and presenting at conferences. In 1999, he was awarded the Goldrich Medal for outstanding contributions to The Geology of the Lake Superior Region. Tsu-Ming died at the age of 80 on February 3rd, 2004. His wife still lives in Ishpeming. Dennis Han, Tsu-Ming’s son, donated the collection to the Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives.Untitled-4

Blog written by Anne Krohn 

Ishpeming’s Long Hair Controversy

It is spring in the year 1970. US troops have recently invaded Cambodia. Anti-war protests continue to rage across the country as the credibility gap widens. The trial of the Chicago 7 fills the national news….

Meanwhile in Marquette County, controversy rages over the length of a boy’s hair….

It sounds ludicrous, doesn’t it? But for several weeks in 1970, the Marquette Mining Journal focused upon the haircut of a single individual. It began when Ishpeming High School valedictorian Steven Koenig was barred from commencement exercises due to the length of his hair. Several weeks of vitriol-filled editorials on both sides of the issue followed.

Many of the editorials supporting the school board sound like a parody of the classic curmudgeon-like, pro-Establishment 1960s parent as they extol the school board’s infinite virtues:

“This fine school board is now being taken to court because of a haircut. In their wisdom, this school board made the guidelines for apparel and length of hair…knowing from experience these fads can escalate out of control as in other schools. Most sad is the clergy condoning the action of the inequities of youth. In his defiance of the school board he acted against the teachings of Paul in the Holy Bible when he said you shall obey the authorities. All parents should guide their children in the study of the Gospel so that we might be spared the doubtful benefits of a ‘student demonstration’.”

There were many who seemed convinced that this was the beginning of the end of the decidedly non-counter-cultural UP:

“Maybe now they will realize the movement has hit the UP and will be well aware of what can happen. The first step is ‘Hair’, then to court, then, unless you stick to your convictions, your dress code will be abolished, acid rock concerts will flourish, underground newspapers will be daily news, obscenities the password, students striking in sympathy, senior high ‘bill of rights’, junior high ‘bill of rights’, abolishing discipline policy, etc….Just look at Ann Arbor. It can and will happen only if you allow it.”

Only weeks before the Koenig incident, the Supreme Court had ruled that public schools could not discipline students for hair length. Some Marquette County residents felt that this was due to loose parenting:

“It is a sad commentary on the state of parental authority when the length of a boy’s haircut has to be settled by the U.S. Supreme Court. One would think that our Supreme Court had more pressing issues to rule on and no doubt would if some parents did not shirk their responsibility of teaching the necessity of authority and law and order.”

Still, there were some who defended the abrogation of Steven’s personal freedom with impassioned speech:

“Under the existing code, my fellow German immigrant Albert Einstein, whose many virtues did not extend to the neatness or tapering of hair, would not have been permitted to attend the commencement program of this school either. Nor would he have wanted to do so.”

“Steven was not a truant…his hair was too long. Steven was not a protester…his hair was too long. Steven was not a failure in class work…his hair was too long. Steven dared to stand up for a principle…but his hair was too long. Steven was not a dope-user…his hair was too long.

“Dear Sir: My congratulations go to the principal and board of education at the Ishpeming high school, who with intelligence and forethought stopped a long-haired student from participating in graduation exercises. By rejecting him you have shown him that he is inferior to his short-haired classmates and totally unfit to live in our great society. Now we can only hope that the President and Congress follow in your steps by exiling all long-haired people: Jesus Christ, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and Einstein, just to name a few. After all, isn’t it common knowledge that it’s not what’s inside someone which makes him a man but the length of his hair which makes him what he is.”

Ultimately, the hemming and hawing led to naught–Steven Koenig was still not allowed at his commencement ceremony, and the UP didn’t enter into an immoral, lawless age of abandon because of long-haired hooligans. One wonders what vicious debates now will seem silly to the next generation.

Written by Annika Peterson.